Many manufacturing procedures need the passivation of the material to make sure the surface is non-reactive and inert. With stainless steel, for instance, the passivation of the surface assists in preventing rust or corrosion.
For Nitinol(a nickel-titanium alloy), the passivation of the materials assist in preventing corrosion, and also helps biocompatibility. The passivation of Nitinol will generally deplete the surface of nickel, which may cause serious allergic reactions in the human body.
For materials including Nitinol and stainless steel, whose passivation layers might be quite thin, chemical analysis services is what you require. One of the most commonly used methods is Electron Spectroscopy Chemical Analysis (ESCA).
ESCA has a sampling depth of approximately 30 Angstroms and can offer the chemical composition and density of the passivation layer. This method is also cited by the semiconductor industry in specifications for testing the passivation of stainless steels.
The method uses an X-ray beam to excite a solid sample, resulting in the emission of photoelectrons. A cross section analysis of these photo electrons offers both chemical and elemental bonding about a sample surface. The main benefit of ESCA is its ability to look at a wide range of materials- including metals, fibers, glasses, polymers, semi-conductors and paper- and detect surface constituents and also their chemical state.
Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical analysis of Stainless Steel
The attributes utilized to evaluate passivated stainless steel are chromium -oxide to iron oxide rations and chromium-to-iron ratios. Both these ratios, and also the density of the passivation layer can be measured utilizing ESCA.
Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis of Nitinol
Nitinol is a shape memory alloy with superelastic properties. Nonetheless, to be used in medical devices, the alloy should be passivated to prevent corrosion and any possible leaching of nickel within the human body. ESCA is a beneficial method for evaluating the passivated Nitinol surface for the presence or absence of Nickel into the human body. ESCA is a beneficial method for evaluating the passivated Nitinol surface for the presence or non-presence of nickel and determining the density of the passivation layer. Nitinol will generally passivate by forming a titanium dioxide layer on the surface.
Hardness Measurement: The robustness of a metal is frequently considered the most vital property as it is utilized in quality and design and can be measured relatively easily. The hardness can give an indication of success and strength of a heat treatment procedure. Standard hardness measurement methods include Rockwell, Brinell, micohardness and file. The hardness measurement technique utilized is generally dictated by the sample geometry and regular hardness level. For bigger samples, the Rockwell and Brinell methods can be readily utilized. For quite small samples, microhardness methods like metallography might be necessary as the indentation utilized to measure robustness is quite small. Microhardness is utilized to document the hardness profile.
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